Classification of Cyperaceae. Sedge genera of the world: Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. This study is a compilation of information regarding sedge phytoliths from widely separated geographic areas. 0. The most primitive type of spikelet is found in the genus Scirpus (bulrushes) and its relatives in the subfamily Cyperoideae. Typological Classification of Cyperaceae Embryos--a Historic Overview Van der Veken (1964, 1965) demonstrated that in Cyperaceae the variation in embryo morphology within species is relatively small. Cyperaceae. About the same number occur in eastern Asia, from Siberia through China to Japan. Current systems of classification of the Cyperaceae divide it into two to five subfamilies. The Scirpus spikelet is not the only type found in the subfamily Cyperoideae. Infrageneric Classification of Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) Revisited: Evidence from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ERIC H. ROALSON and ELIZABETH A. FRIAR Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, California 91711 Communicating Editor: Jeff H. Rettig ABSTRACT. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Abilgaardia Poir. What have you found?" Cyperaceae. Most sedges have triangular stems ("edges"), except for Scripus, which has round stems. Cyperaceae in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. A new classification for Lipocarpha and Volkiella as infrageneric taxa of Cyperus s.l. Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Poaceae. The Caricoideae, the next largest subfamily, has 2,100 species dispersed among only 5 genera and is characterized by unisexual flowers with the female in single-flowered spikelets enclosed by a bract. A recent classification is that of Bruhl (1995). The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Syst. The goals of this study were to elucidate phylogenetic relationships in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and compare this phylogeny with three infrageneric classifications. Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons: Subclass Commelinidae: Order Cyperales: Family Cyperaceae – Sedge family : Contains 40 Genera and 1327 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Genus Abildgaardia Vahl – sedge P: Genus Blysmus Panzer ex Schult. Spikelets characteristic of Rhynchospora and its allies and Cladium and its allies are derived by a reduction in the number of flowers per spikelet and a sterilization of lowermost or uppermost flowers, as well as by the conversion of some bisexual flowers to staminate only; in Rhynchospora, for example, male flowers are above the perfect flowers, and in Cladium male flowers are below. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. The female flowers are always solitary and borne within a perigynium derived from the partly or wholly closed first leaf (prophyll) of the spikelet axis. https://www.britannica.com/plant/Cyperaceae. The family is divided into subfamilies and tribes, based mainly on inflorescence and floret structure. The subfamily Sclerioideae has about 14 genera and 300 species; its flowers also are unisexual, but its fruit is not enveloped by a similar bract. Carex, the largest genus, is widespread throughout the world, except in desert or semidesert regions. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is … They suggest that inflorescences of the subfamily Mapanioideae, with their pseudanthia composed of tiny, unisexual flowers, represent the primitive condition in the Cyperaceae. Methods and results: Twenty samples from each of three populations were screened with the markers to assess genetic variation. Our study improved this classification as well as classification systems describing other typical morphotypes of Cyperaceae (Honaine et al., 2009). The uniformly unisexual flowers, however, have also prompted botanists to align it with the subfamily Sclerioideae, which has unisexual flowers as well. Plants of the Sedge Family "Sedges have edges. The Cyperaceae is a cosmopolitan family of monocotyledonous plants with about 5 000 species, of which 1500 are C4 plants (Bruhl and Wilson, 2007). The pseudanthium is thought to be derived from a hypothetical prototype inflorescence in which a single female flower terminates an axis along which numerous male flowers are situated in the axils of bracts. Other large genera are basically distributed throughout the tropical regions of the Earth, with only a few outlying species in cold temperate regions. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Grasses are hollow. The goals of this study were to elucidate phylogenetic relationships in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and compare this phylogeny with three infrageneric classifications. Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. Comparison # Poaceae (Gramineae): 1. Eleocharis also has a number of species in cold temperate or even Arctic regions, although the great bulk of its 200 species are confined to warmer areas. Included here are previously published descriptions along with newly interpreted material. Curator of Vascular Plants, University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor. Relationships among C 4 genera of Cyperaceae, based on morphological data [Bruhl, J. Targeted sequencing supports morphology and embryo features in resolving the classification of Cyperaceae tribe Fuireneae s.l. These analyses place … Table 3 contains a summary of studies, species, the main morphotype, and the observed variations in the predominant morphotype. The highly reduced, unisexual flowers are grouped together tightly in such a way as to simulate a single flower (pseudanthium). Goetghebeur, P. (1998) Cyperaceae. Four subfamilies are recognized in this article. Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. Cyperaceae. 17. (Cypereae, Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae): Insights from species tree reconstruction supplemented with morphological and floral developmental data. Acrocarpus Nees. Recent taxonomic investigation of the suprageneric classification of the Cyperaceae has made clarification of the nomenclature an urgent necessity. Accessed 16 Sept. 2013. In the tribe Bisboekelereae, the bracts below the terminal female flower are united to form a perigynium somewhat similar to that of the subfamily Caricoideae, though evolved independently. This subfamily may have originated from plants with branched inflorescences similar to the hypothetical prototype ancestral to the subfamily Mapanioideae; however, the male flowers immediately below the terminal female flower were reduced to bracts, while branches below this point on the inflorescence have lost their terminal female flower and bear a few male flowers and one or a few distal bracts. This hypothesis is based on the observation that unisexual flowers in the Cyperaceae apparently have no vestiges of the other sex. The Cyperaceae, among the 10 largest families of flowering plants, contain about 5,000 species and, depending on the classification used, between 70 and 115 genera. Omissions? The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Although fossil sedges are known from as early as the Eocene, they are as yet of little use in interpreting evolution in Cyperaceae because they are both fragmentary and apparently closely resemble modern groups. Species occurring in tropical or warm temperate regions, except for those that are widespread agricultural weeds, are generally confined to a single continent. The subfamily Mapanioideae has a pseudanthium, or false flower, composed of a single terminal female flower surrounded by a number of naked stamens, each of which is subtended by a bract with the lowest two stamens situated opposite each other. Developing a comprehensive infrasectional classification with a phylogenetic basis would be complicated by the fact that most of the novel morphological characters in the section have evolved … Current systems of classification of the Cyperaceae divide it into two to five subfamilies. A majority of sedges, however, are plants of sunny, moist to wet habitats such as fresh and salt marshes, pond and lakeshores, meadows, bogs, fens, wet prairies and savannas, and moist to wet tundra. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16. Rushes are round. ” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; and Bruhl, J.J. (1995). Cyperaceae in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Male flowers occur in the axils of bracts either on the rachilla extending beyond the female flower or on axes bearing perigynia. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season, sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. Abstract. The inflorescence then underwent reduction so that the male flowers were represented by only a single stamen each and the axis between them became greatly shortened. All Cyperus have a uniform embryo type and a relatively consistent morphology. This reflected the new post-Darwinian perspective.Engler's Syllabus first appeared in 1892 with the title Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. Cyperus is recognized here in a broad sense, although the genus Kyllinga is not included with it. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. The subfamily Sclerioideae is almost entirely tropical, with only a few species of Scleria occurring in the temperate zone. Phytotaxa, 166, 1–32. Classification: About the Classification Report About the Classification Download . This common rhyme can help you remember the key differences between the Sedge, Rush, and Grass families. The Cyperaceae are grasslike herbaceous plants found especially in wet regions throughout the world. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Each of the six large genera except for Carex are primarily found in warm temperate or tropical regions, with only a few cold temperate species. In the genus Hypolytrum, only the two opposite stamens and their subtending bracts are present beneath the female flower. The spikelet found in Cyperus and several related, smaller genera is similar, but the lowermost bract does not bear a flower. Suprageneric classification of Cyperaceae. Many species of sedges that occur in northern latitudes have circumpolar distributions. Epiphytes are very rare among the sedges, occurring primarily in the South American genus Everardia. Sedges have been the subject of research at Kew for many years and a profound knowledge of this beautiful family has been built up during the past decades. Goetghebeur, P. (1998) Cyperaceae. Although there is a large number of species in Arctic, temperate, and tropical regions, the diversity of genera is far greater in tropical regions. Classification: About the Classification Report About the Classification Download . Some authorities have proposed a hypothesis of evolution in the Cyperaceae that is essentially the reverse direction of evolution to that presented above—that is, that unisexual flowers were the primitive condition. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Most sedges have triangular stems ("edges"), except for Scripus, which has round stems. 1) Core Carex clade: to be treated as the type subgenus, as it includes the lectotype species C. hirta L. It also... 2) Unispicate clade: a taxonomically heterogeneous assemblage in the genus. “Taxonomic relationships and photosynthetic pathways in the Cyperaceae. The reduction in the inflorescence was so extreme that it strongly resembles a flower—hence the term pseudanthium. The Cyperoideae, the largest subfamily including about 70 genera and 2,400 species, has usually perfect flowers in simple spikes with often numerous spirally arranged or two-ranked scales. 8: 125–305. SELECTED REFERENCES. Also, it assumes that the broad-leaved tropical lowland species of the subfamily Mapanioideae are the most primitive representatives of the family. This study is a compilation of information regarding sedge phytoliths from widely separated geographic areas. The Cyperaceae are grasslike herbaceous plants found especially in wet regions throughout the world. The caricoid spikelet, characteristic of Carex and its satellite genera in the subfamily Caricoideae, is a highly specialized, reduced spikelet with uniformly unisexual flowers. It is based on many lines of evidence, i.e. Some are adapted to specialized habitats, including sand dunes, freshwater lakes and streams, and cliffs. – bulrush P: Genus Bolboschoenus (Asch.) It is hoped that all the data presented will be of use in the future development of a classification scheme for phytoliths of Cyperaceae. The interpretation of this structure, and the resulting classification, varies from author to author. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A suprageneric classification of the Cyperaceae is proposed, in which the genera are explicitly assigned to twelve tribes and two subfamilies. Click on names to expand them, and on P … Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Cactaceae. The interpretation of this structure, and the resulting classification, varies from author to author. Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. His modified Eichler schema first appeared in 1886 in his Guide to Breslau Botanic Garden (of which he was the director) and was expanded in his Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien in 1892. In recent systematic treatments of the Cyperaceae, spikelets of all but the most primitive tribes have been considered to be indeterminate, whereas historically the number of flowers, floral sex and distribution of sexes in spikelets have been important characters in suprageneric classifications. Published on the internet. Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 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